Total Protein In Blood - What Is The Norm? What If The Protein Is High / Low?

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Video: Total Protein In Blood - What Is The Norm? What If The Protein Is High / Low?

Video: Total Protein In Blood - What Is The Norm? What If The Protein Is High / Low?
Video: High / Low Protein in Your Blood: What Does It Mean? 2023, March
Total Protein In Blood - What Is The Norm? What If The Protein Is High / Low?
Total Protein In Blood - What Is The Norm? What If The Protein Is High / Low?

Total protein in blood

Definition and clinical significance

Total protein in blood
Total protein in blood

Total blood protein is one of the indicators of amino acid metabolism in the body, which characterizes the concentration of protein molecules of all types and fractions in plasma. We can say that this indicator of the products of protein metabolism is a mirror image of the body's regenerative abilities. After all, proteins play the role of a kind of framework or plastic material on which all other elements of cells and tissues are held. If this substrate is sufficient, any organ or system remains complete, both structurally and functionally.

The entire protein of the human body is represented by more than a hundred different subspecies. These proteins can only consist of an amino acid set, or they can contain various compounds of proteins of different molecular weights with other metabolic products (lipids, carbohydrates, electrolytes in the form of glycoproteins, lipoproteins and hemoglobin, etc.) Their metabolism, especially synthesis, or otherwise it happens in the liver. Therefore, the functional usefulness of this organ is the main regulator of protein metabolism.

The indicator of total blood plasma protein reflects the readiness of the body to timely and adequately respond to any unforeseen disturbances in the structure or functioning of all organs and systems. In this case, the globulin fraction characterizes immunity, fibrinogen - coagulation mechanisms, and albumin - all other restorative abilities!

The main components of total protein, which are determined in the course of biochemical research, are:

  1. Albumin - low molecular weight proteins that provide all the plastic needs of the body in building material to maintain the structure and synthesis of new cells. Make up the bulk of total protein;
  2. Globulins are large-molecular proteins necessary for the synthesis of antibodies, immunoglobulins and other immune proteins (complement components, c-reactive protein, inflammatory mediators, tumor necrosis factor, etc.) In the structure of the total protein, they occupy slightly less than half of the volume;
  3. Fibrinogen is a high molecular weight protein that participates in the final stage of the formation of a platelet clot, and is responsible for the usefulness of the blood coagulation system. It accounts for the smallest amount of all components of total protein.

The rate of total protein in the blood

Each of the indicators of a biochemical blood test has its own units of measurement and standard values with which the results obtained during the study should be compared. The rate of total protein in the blood is in the range of 65-85 g / l. Although this value is not constant, the table below shows the norms for women and men, depending on age.

Categories of people

Norm for women

Norm for men


42-62 g / l

41-63 g / l

Children under 1 year

44-79 g / l

47-70 g / l

Children from 1 to 5 years old

60-75 g / l

55-75 g / l

Children from 5 to 8 years old

53-79 g / l

52-79 g / l

Children from 8 to 18 years old

58-77 g / l

56-79 g / l

Adults 18-35 years old

75 - 79 g / l

82-85 g / l

Adults 35-60 years old

79-83 g / l

76-80 g / l

Adults 60-75 years old

74-77 g / l

76-78 g / l

Over 75 years old

69-77 g / l

73-78 g / l

The rate of total protein in women

There are no special norms for the indicator of total protein for men and women due to the rather wide range of upper and lower limits of the standard values. But in women, total protein can be reduced by up to 10% compared to men in a similar age group. This can be explained by the high needs of the female body in protein, which is spent on the synthesis of sex hormones. The synthetic properties of the liver in women are lower than in men;

The rate of total protein during pregnancy

In pregnant women, fluctuations in total protein are subject to even greater downward scatter. It can be considered normal and quite natural to decrease it by up to 30% in comparison with the generally accepted norm.

This may be a natural consequence:

  • Increase in the circulating plasma volume due to fluid retention in the vascular space;
  • The increased needs of the body of a pregnant woman in plastic material for the synthesis of sex and other hormones of the endocrine glands;
  • The need for plastic material for the growth and development of the fetus.

Pathological fluctuations in the parameters of total plasma protein can be represented by both its increase and decrease. The second option is more common, but less specific. Increases in total protein are more rare, but more common in a narrower range of diseases!

Causes of increased total blood protein

If an increase in total protein values is detected in a biochemical blood test, they speak of hyperproteinemia.

She may indicate:

  • Dehydration of the body due to pathological loss of fluid or its redistribution between the vascular space and tissues during intoxication, infections and septic conditions;
  • Enhanced synthesis of antibodies during the formation of immunity after vaccination or postponed infectious diseases. Typically, this increase is not significant;
  • Multiple myeloma. Such cases of hyperproteinemia are represented by a pronounced increase in protein levels due to abnormal proteins (Bens-Jones protein);
  • DIC syndrome with hypercoagulability against the background of intoxication and various critical conditions.

Causes of Lowered Total Blood Protein

Causes of Lowered Total Blood Protein
Causes of Lowered Total Blood Protein

A decrease in the level of total blood protein is called hypoproteinemia. Its presence may indicate the following conditions:

  • Liver pathology, accompanied by hepatocellular insufficiency: viral and toxic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis;
  • Alimentary protein deficiency with malnutrition and depletion of the body in severe illness;
  • Increased loss of protein in the urine with decompensated renal pathology and severe proteinuria;
  • Complications of diabetes mellitus;
  • Chronic severe anemia and massive bleeding;
  • Diseases of the stomach and intestines with impaired absorption of nutrients;
  • Enzymatic and secretory pancreatic insufficiency in chronic pancreatitis;
  • HIV infection and other immunodeficiencies;
  • Endocrine pathology in the form of hypothyroidism;
  • Cancer progression and metastasis.

A decrease in the level of protein is always an alarm signal indicating pronounced pathological changes. The human body in such a state becomes defenseless against any harmful environmental factors and is not capable of self-recovery!


Article author: Mochalov Pavel Alexandrovich | d. m. n. therapist

Education: Moscow Medical Institute. IM Sechenov, specialty - "General Medicine" in 1991, in 1993 "Occupational Diseases", in 1996 "Therapy".

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